Claudine seems to have been forgotten. In the 1920's it was very popular, leading up to 1930 when it was at its all-time high of 208 births that year. She's been used since at least 1881 in the U.S., but in 2015 this name was only given to 8 girls and is considered "endangered." This French take on Claudia, meaning "lame," came from the Roman family name Claudius. Claudia currently ranks at #741 in the U.S. and pretty high in other countries, whereas Claudine last ranked in 1971. Claudette is another rare variant, and neither make the top 500 in France.
Regardless of her current popularity, most people have heard this name before. 20th century French writer Colette gave this name to one of her heroines. More recently she was a fairy in the Sookie Stackhouse novels by Charlaine Harris. There's a Bond Girl named Claudine Auger, an Enid Blyton character, and a Moliere character. In real life there is French chemist Claudine Picardet, Irish beauty queen Claudine Palmer, French singer Claudine Longet, and many more.
There's also Claudine Rhédey von Kis-Rhéde. This Hungarian Countess was born in Transylvania and died in 1841. She was born Klaudia but called Klaudina, was married to Duke Alexander of Württemberg and her grand daughter became Queen Consort of George V.
Further back you'll find Claudine Guerin de Tencin, Baroness of Saint-Martin-de-Re. She was known to participate in conversations in salons, and was an author.
In the 1600's there was Claudine Francoise Mignot, who received three large fortunes through marriage and may have used her funds to go on adventures.
Another noteworthy Claudine was Lady regnant and then Lady consort of Monaco. Her father was Catalan Grimaldi and her grandmother was Pomelline Fregoso. There are several other namesakes for Claudine.